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Grammar

Punctuation
z
RP Details

1  Busy

2  Cheap/Taste

3  Healthy
4  Thesis
z

Coherence
**Citations

**Works Cited
MLA Directions



 

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Research Paper
Citations

Professor Stevens, English 28


Place citations in the MIDDLE of paragraph, not at beginning.

 

Purple Citation Integration

Red Citation Introduction


BOOK

It seems my nose is quickly taken in by the fantastic smell of the French fries, and I order an extra-large one due to the perfume like additives, which makes the French fries so pleasing to my sense of smell. In Fast Food Nation Eric Schlosser says, “The fast food industry turned to the professional smell producers, the perfume industry, to create additives that make French fries taste and smell appealing” (123). So, it seems my nose is quickly taken in by the fantastic smell of the French fries, and I order an extra-large one due to the perfume like additives, which makes the French fries so pleasing to my sense of smell.


WEB

Employers have the right under most circumstances to monitor employee internet behavior. In “Cyber-Working or Cyber-Shirking” Jay Kesan says“The law holds employers liable for employees’ internet behavior, such as violations of copyright laws, the distribution of offensive or graphic sexual material, and illegal disclosure of confidential information” (par. 3)


Book titles  in italics.

Article titles in quotes  in “Quotes"

Citation Integration: To integrate your quote into your paper use specific citation words in the sentence before the citation; for example, in sample above the words taste and smell are used in the sentence before Schlosser’s quote, which uses taste and smell in it. The Integration WORDS must be the same, identical in both the QUOTE AND THE SENTENCE ABOVE THE QUOTE.

 

 

 

     

Citation Introduction in red above: The citation introductory statement identifies the article/book and author before the citation.

The first time you mention a source (citation) you need to provide a clear introduction to include the name of article/book and the author’s full name.

(Once the source is identified by author & title, you need only use author’s last name to cite another of the same source (book/article). Therefore, use only the paragraph number (par. 8) or page number (46) in parentheses after you provide a full introduction to the citation.)

 

 

 

BOOK

 

1.     In Telling: Confessions, Consessions, and Other Flashers of Light Marion Winik says, “Now is the time for all good fmen to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country” (185).

 

QUOTE IN A QUOTE

 

2.     In “The dog Ate My Disk, and Other Tales of Woe” Carolyn Segal says, “Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country” (qtd. in Kirsner 757).

 

WEB

 

3.     In “The Most Annoying Facebookers” Brandon Griggs says, “Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country. Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country” (par. 6).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citation (quote)

 

    Red  =  Integration words in your paper:

 

Yellow  =  Citation Introduction (name of article and author) and the citation/quote

 

 

          I love the taste and smell of fast food, but I especially like the smell of French fries.  In Fast Food Nation Eric Scholsser says, “The fast food industry turned to the professional smell producers, the perfume industry, to create additives that make French fries taste and smell appealing” (123).  So, it seems my nose is quickly taken in by the fantastic smell of the French fries and order an extra-large one due to the perfume like additives, which makes the French fries so pleasing to the my sense of smell. 

 

Completed Citation:

 

I love the taste and smell of fast food, but I especially like the smell of French fries.  In Fast Food Nation Eric Scholsser says  “The fast food industry turned to the professional smell producers, the perfume industry, to create additives that make French fries taste and smell appealing” (123).  So, it seems my nose is quickly taken in by the fantastic smell of the French fries and order an extra-large one due to the perfume like additives, which makes the French fries so pleasing to the my sense of smell. 

 

 

 

 

 

 


More Mature and Complicated Citations Below

 

 

 

Web Article: Citation Introduction in red & Citation Integration in Yellow:

In “Cyber-Working or Cyber-Shirking” Jay Kesan says, “The law holds employers liable for employees’ actions such as violations of copyright laws, the distribution of offensive or graphic sexual material, and illegal disclosure of confidential information” (par. 3). These kinds of concerns should give employers, in certain instances, the right to monitor employee behavior.

 


Print Book Citation Introduction in red & Citation Integration in Yellow:

In an age when employers can collect data whenever employees use their computers—for example, when they send e-mail, surf the Web, or even arrive at or depart from their workstations—the challenge for both employers and employers is to determine how much is too much

In The Naked Employee Frederick Lane says, “Technology makes it possible for employers to gather enormous amounts of data about employees, often far beyond what is necessary to satisfy safety or productivity concerns. And the trends that drive technology—faster, smaller, cheaper—make it possible for larger and larger numbers of employers to gather ever-greater amounts of personal data” (3-4).

 

Last Word

Lastly, once you have identified the source/citation completely (author & title) you need only use last name to cite another source.  Citation integration explains how the source/citation relates to the thesis statement and/or a paragraph’s topic sentence.

  1. Readers should not have to guess why a citation appears in your paragraph; link it to your paragraph’s topic sentence.
  2. Place your integration sentence(s) before or after the citation. Most importantly, do not drop a citation into a paragraph without notice, assuming that the reader understands its connection to your paper—paragraph—topic sentence.

Citation Introduction

1.     The citation introductory statement names the author and document (book, web site, article, etc.) before the citation.

2.     The first time you mention a source (citation) you need to provide a clear introduction to include the name of article/book and the author’s full name.

3.     On the other hand, once you have identified the source/citation completely (author & title) you need only use author’s last name to cite another of the same source (book/article). Therefore, use only the paragraph number (par. 8) or page number (46) in parentheses after you provide a full introduction to the citation.

Note: English 28 students use “says” only just before the citation, for example: In the book Writing Is Not Simple Roger Humble says, “Do not be creative; use says to introduce a citation only” (421).

 


More Citation  Examples:


Sample #1: Web:

Citation: Complete Paragraph with its INTRODUCTION & INTEGRATION:

                I never feel good about myself when it comes to getting my homework completed. I blame my wife for not being able to focus on my homework. Every time she talks on the phone, she does not talk normally; she shrieks into the mouth piece of her cell phone as if the person listening to her is deaf.   Hence, I cannot concentrate on my assignment. In the (Links to an external site) Excuses Quotes On Brainy Quote Michael Straczynski says, People spend too much time finding other people to blame, too much energy finding excuses . . .” (par. 1). In addition, I have used my daughter as an excuse for not getting my homework completed. I spend hours picking up after her because she is hyperactive. For instance, last week I just settled down to do my English homework, and my daughter ate my homework because I did not feed her.  I blame her for not being able to turn in my homework.

 

 

Citation INTEGRATION: Explains how the citation relates to the paragraph's topic.

        

          I never feel good about myself when it comes to getting my homework completed. I blame my wife for not being able to focus on my homework. Every time she talks on the phone, she does not talk normally; she shrieks into the mouth piece of her cell phone as if the person listening to her is deaf.  Hence, I cannot concentrate on my assignment.

Citation INTRODUCTION: statement names the author & document (book, web site, article before the citation.

In Excuses Quotes On Brainy Quote Michael Straczynski says,

Actual CITATION (quote):

“People spend too much time finding other people to blame, too much energy finding excuses . . .” (par. 1).

 

Sample #2: Book:

Citation: Complete Paragraph with its INTRODUCTION & INTEGRATION:

               There are many distractions that keep me from getting my college work done. My son kept me up most of last week because he was running a high temperature of 1,000 degrees every day. So, the day before my math class met, I did not do or complete my assignment; I was exhausted. Also, friends have kept me up late with what they consider as major emergencies and demands, such as hospitalization. clubbing, and sports events.  In “The Dog Ate My Flash Drive”  Carolyn Segal says, “My best friend was up all night and I had to . . . stay up with her in the dorm . . . [and] drive her to the hospital . . ..” (qtd. in Aaron 689). Also, being distracted by my friends who put demands on my time, keeping me from my homework. Three weeks ago, I went with my friends to a Lakers game when I normally do my homework.

 

 

 

 

Citation INTEGRATION 1: Explains how the citation relates to the paragraph's topic.

  

ANALYSIS:     

     

            There are many distractions that keep me from getting my college work done. My son kept me up most of last week because he was running a high temperature of 1,000 degrees every day. So, the day before my math class met, I did not do or complete my assignment; I was exhausted. Also, friends have kept me up late with what they consider as major emergencies and demands, such as hospitalization. clubbing, and sports events.

 

Citation INTRODUCTION: statement names the author and document (book, web site, article, etc.) before the citation

.

In“The Dog Ate My Flash Drive” Carolyn Segal says,

Actual CITATION:

“My best friend was up all nigh and I had to . . . stay up with her in the dorm . . . [and] drive her to the hospital . . .” (qtd. in Aaron 689).  

  

Citation INTEGRATION 2: Explains how the citation relates to the paragraph's topic.

Also, being distracted by my friends who put demands on my time, keeping me from my homework. Three weeks ago, I went with my friends to a Lakers game when I normally do my homework.

 


Citation Introduction Signal Words

It is suggested that  you use "says" only until you become proficient

in the meaning and usage of the signal words below:

Acknowledges

Comments

Endorses

Reasons

Adds

Compares

Grants

Refutes

Admits

Confirms

Illustrates

Rejects

Agrees

Contends

Implies

Reports

Argues

Declares

Insists

Responds

Asserts

Denies

Notes

Suggests

Believes

Disputes

Observes

says

Claims

Emphasizes

Points out

writes

Source: Rules for Writers, Diane Hacker


Need Help—See Rules for Writers:

58b       Citation Introductions (called Signal Phrases in Rules for Writers)

59a       Citations within essay

60b       Citations—more within essay